Having ADHD along with a coexisting disruptive behavior disorder (ODD/CD) can complicate diagnosis and treatment and also worsen the prognosis. Even though many children with ADHD ultimately adjust, some (especially those with an associated conduct or oppositional defiant disorder) are more likely to drop out of school, have fewer years of overall education, have less job satisfaction and fare less well as adults. Early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions is by far the best defense against these poorer outcomes
What are the types of disruptive behavior disorders?
Disruptive behavior disorders include two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Common symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors such as lying and stealing. It is felt that the difference between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder is in the severity of symptoms and that they may lie on a continuum often with a developmental progression from ODD to CD with increasing age.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) refers to a recurrent pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures lasting at least six months. To be diagnosed with ODD four (or more) of the following symptoms must be present:
• often loses temper
• often argues with adults
• often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules
• often deliberately annoys people
• often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
• is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
• is often angry and resentful
• is often spiteful or vindictive.